Tuesday, November 17, 2015

Monarch Census--The Winter Survey

Guest Blog by Mary Nemecek, Missouri Master Naturalist Osage Trails Chapter.

On November 3rd, around mid-day, monarchs began arriving in Angangueo, Mexico.  Angangueo sits just below the two largest wintering grounds formonarch butterflies.  This signals the end of their fall migration and the beginning of their winter spent on the Oyamel trees in the Monarch Butterfly Biosphere Reserve.   

Here the monarchs will overwinter, hanging in heavy clusters, earning  them the honor of being the 2nd most dense concentration of animals in the world (krill being #1).  In March, they will become active, begin to breed and move back north.

During the winter scientists will survey the amount of land covered by monarchs on the biosphere and estimate population numbers.  The number of hectares (ha) covered by monarchs is usually reported in late January and an estimate of the monarch population is released.  Monarchs are counted at 50 million monarchs per hectare.  One hectare equals 2.47 acres.
These monarchs are roosting in Kansas
on their way to Mexico. Photo by Mary Nemecek

The history of the number of monarchs estimated per hectare is interesting and heartbreaking.  Originally, after years of study through different methodology, monarchs were estimated at 10 million/ha.  That was until a winter storm hit the overwintering grounds in 2002 and millions of butterflies were killed.  It's estimated 75% of the population was lost during the storm.  However this gave scientists the opportunity to count butterflies. One square meter held  2,241 dead monarchs.  This alone would have brought the number per hectare to 22.4 million.  But not all the monarchs perished and there were still many more in the trees.  In other areas the numbers were even higher.  Eventually scientists came to the conclusion that each hectare held a population of 50 million monarchs.
These are monarchs roosting at their Mexican
overwintering site in Mexico.  Photo from Learner.org.

An all time low of .67 ha was reached during the winter of 2013/2014.  Last winter the number bumped up to 1.13 ha but nowhere near what scientists would like to see for a sustainable population.  Dr. Chip Taylor with Monarch Watch would like to see the number at 4 ha and US Fish and Wildlife Services have set a goal for 6 ha.

Earlier this month, when Secretary of the Interior Sally Jewel visited the reserves with Mexican Environment Secretary Rafael Pacchiano , news sources around the world reported predictions of a large increase in overwintering populations to 3 or 4 times over  last winter.  If true, this could get the monarchs to Dr. Taylor's minimum threshold of 4 ha.  However, Dr. Taylor is more conservative in his predictions.  "I've been predicting at least a doubling of the population and that seems justified based on the success of the tagging program," wrote Dr. Taylor in a recent post. 
The number of data sheets returned for tagged monarchs shows almost double the number of monarchs tagged this year compared to last year.  Dr. Taylor said roughly 80,000 plus monarchs were tagged in 2015.  Additionally, Dr. Taylor points out, the conditions this year were similar to 2011 when the overwintering population came in at 2.89 ha.

As  the world holds their breath for good weather on the wintering grounds and a big count, there is still more work to do to ensure a continued, sustainable, migratory monarch population.  USFWS estimates it takes 29 stems of milkweed to produce one overwintering monarch.   That leaves an additional 1.5 billion milkweed stems needed in the mid-west to achieve a 6 ha overwintering population.  Lots of planning and planting left to do.

Wednesday, November 11, 2015

Collecting, Processing, Storing and Sowing Milkweed Seed

Guest Blog 
By Wedge Watkins and Becky Erickson

The decline of Monarch butterflies is at a critical level. The Mexican overwintering population has declined from using an area of 22 acres to about one acre.  There are many reasons for the decline, including loss of habitat, both in Mexico and in their Midwest migration route throughout North America. What can we do to help Monarchs now and in the near future?

Photo: Becky Erickson
As monarchs fly south looking for milkweeds on which to lay eggs, they are also looking for patches of quality wildflowers. There is no point in finding a nursery for the larva if there is nothing for the new adults to eat. The next generation needs plenty of quality nectar for fuel to start the next leg of the Journey. The best plan is to donate about 1/10 to 1/4 acre of a field corner or fence row to plant 15 species or more of quality wildflower seed with the same technique explained below. Treating heavy fescue with herbicide for a year before seeding is imperative to the persistence of the wildflowers.

1.  Scout out areas for milkweed plants. Learn to identify at least common milkweed and swamp milkweed. Others you might find are Sullivan’s, purple, tall green, butterfly, whorled, or spider [in un-glaciated areas]. Common milkweed grows on field edges and roadsides where soil has been disturbed. It is a tall robust plant with wide opposite leaves. Pale pink flowers grow in large clusters from leaf nodes. Pods are about 4 inches long, 1.5 in. in diameter, and are usually covered with scattered extended knobs. Swamp milkweed grows in ditches and other muddy areas. It is tall, smooth with long pointed opposite leaves. Bright pink flowers usually cluster on the top of the plant. Pods are about 3 inches long, ½ in. in diameter, smooth, and point upward in a cluster.

2.  Don’t mow areas where you find milkweed growing.

3.  Delay fall prescribed burns until milkweed seed has been collected from burn units.

4.  Collect seed pods from milkweed when they are ready. Pods are ready when they are dry, gray or brown. If center seam pops with a gentile pressure, they can be picked. If they are starting to fluff out, of course they can be collected. It is best to collect pods into paper bags such as lunch sacks or grocery bags. Label the bag as to location and habitat and the species. Store in an air-conditioned space until processed.

5.  Process the seed (remove the seed from pods and silk). All manner of mechanical devices have been tried, to do this in bulk. Most methods are unsuccessful. It is time consuming to clean seed by hand, but it is the most efficient way.  Hold pod in both hands by the ends. Pop it open enough to hold thumb over silk. Open pod a bit more so you can tease seed into a container. Drop silk into another container; when it becomes unruly, spray it with a little water. There could be seed still in with the silk and pods [ “trash” ], so place it somewhere it might grow.

6.  Store seed properly. Seed needs to be completely dry. Seed is a living plant. When air temperature and humidity added together are < 100, there is a very good chance seed will retain viability for a few years. If the combined number reaches 150, the seed has lost viability. SO: do not leave seed in a locked vehicle in the sun with the windows closed, nor in a closed container in an outdoor shed. DO NOT FREEZE seed; they have moisture in them and will explode and die if frozen. After processing, store in a clean plastic container in refrigerator. Label: “species, year, for planting location”

7.  Identify appropriate areas to sow the seed. While you were collecting you noted habitat. Find another area where habitat is similar and there are few/no milkweeds growing. Do not sow in areas likely to be sprayed with Glyphosate or other herbicides.

8.  Prepare the planting site if needed (this can be done with common garden tools). If the planting site such as a strip next to
    a field or road, is thick with fescue or brome, or some other alien vegetation it would be beneficial to spray glyphosate over the area to be planted several weeks before planting. Then mow short and scruff up the surface with a rake. Do not till.

9.  Sow the seed on bare soil, prior to the first snow; sometime between Halloween and Christmas is best. If soil is workable, germination success would be higher if seed is raked a bit into the surface. But this is not necessary. Simply walk on the seed for good contact. A very light cover of dead vegetation [mulch] can be helpful to keep seedlings from drying out in early summer.

10.  GPS the seed collection site and planting location or mark it correctly on a map or aerial photo. A photo of the location would also help future monitoring efforts.

Service Pollinator webpage and HQ/Regional  Pollinator Coordinators contact information: www.fws.gov/savethemonarch   www.fws.gov/pollinators
Monarch Joint Venture: http://monarchjointventure.org/
The Xerces Society: http://www.xerces.org/

Habitat Assessment Tool:
Monarch Breeding Habitat Assessment Tool. University of Minnesota Monarch Lab and Monarch Joint Venture. Online at: http://monarchjointventure.org/images/uploads/documents/Habitat_Assessment_Tool_Final_test.pdf

Milkweeds Information and Seed Sources: 
 Border, B. and E. Lee-Mader. 2014. Milkweeds: A Conservation Practitioner’s Guide. 143 pp. Portland, OR: The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. Online at:  http://www.xerces.org/milkweeds-a-conservation-practitioners-guide/
Pollinator Plants of the Central United States: Native Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.) (2013). The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland OR, in collaboration with USDA-NRCS. Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_PLANTMATERIALS/publications/mopmcpu11905.pdf
Great Basin Pollinator Plants: Native Milkweeds (Asclepias spp.)(2012). The Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation, Portland OR, in collaboration with USDA-NRCS Great Basin Plant Material

Center, Fallon NV. NVPMC Technical Note No. 56.  Online at: http://www.nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_PLANTMATERIALS/publications/nvpmctn11525.pdf